There are two ways in which pathogens make us sick. One is by the direct effects of the pathogen itself. The other is by collateral damage from our hyperactive immune responses to the pathogen by the release of interferons (IFNs), interleukins (ILs), tumor-necrosis factors (TNF-α), chemokines, and several other mediators. These latter mechanisms appear to play major roles in many severe cases of COVID-19. Mortality in COVID-19 patients has been linked to the presence of the so-called “cytokine storm” induced by SARS-CoV-2. Excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) aggravation and widespread tissue damage resulting in multi-organ failure and death (1).
Cytokine storm is difficult to define. There is an excellent review of the concept in this article. It is generally thought to involve aberrant reactivity by the innate immune system, dysregulated inflammatory reactions, and over-expression of inflammatory cytokines. In particular, over-expression of IL-6 is thought to be a hallmark of the cytokine storm. In many reported cases, levels of IL-6 were significantly higher in severe cases than in mild cases. However, one study shows that reported levels of IL-6 in the ARDS stage of COVID-19 are one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of non-COVID-19 cases or ARDS(2). As we will further discuss in detail, drugs that target the IL-6 pathway have shown promising results in treating COVID-19 patients. Other over-expressed pro-inflammatory soluble factors include IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β.
What are the differences in immune system between severely and mildly ill patients? A number of studies have attempted to determine the critical differences. The general findings include elevated serum inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory factors mostly with elevated levels of IL-6 (3-6). Correlation, however, does not necessarily indicate causation. It is also plausible that the apparent immune hyperreactivity is a response to poorly controlled viral replication. If that were to be the case, administration of anti-inflammatory drugs could worsen rather than ameliorate disease. In general, several observational studies have concluded that administration of the IL-6 receptor targeting monoclonal antibody tocilizumab resulted in greatly improved outcomes relative to standard of care (7-8). Interestingly, one report indicated that using an IL-6 inhibitor can lead to conditionally beneficial outcomes(7), depending upon when it was administered (based upon a sole significant parameter, the patient’s %O2 requirements). Both groups benefited when comparing their death, intubation and hospital discharge rates to standard of care data. However, the benefits were more striking when treatment was initiated while O2 requirements were still below 45%. This suggests that treatment should be started before the onset of more critical disease.
A large randomized trial was carried out with another anti-inflammatory drug, dexamethasone. Against standard of care, dexamethasone treatment resulted in a strikingly lower loss of life with a 20% lower death rate in patients on oxygen. For less ill patients there was no effect on this treatment. Again, this suggests that the immune response plays a critical role in the late stage of disease. Indeed, a clear benefit was observed by a comparison study between the treatments of another anti-inflammatory drug, colchicine, and standard of care (9). These data suggest that the progress of late stage of disease results from inappropriate immune responses rather than from viral activity overcoming an increasingly active immune response. In addition, over-expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-4 and -10) have been observed in COVID-19 patients(10), although this is primarily seen in critically ill patients(11). This is further indicative of further immune dysregulation.
Aside from cytokines and other soluble mediators, what are the cellular and tissue aspects of inflammation that might be indicative of dysregulated cytokine expression? One repeated and robust observation is of an elevated ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes. There are many reviews and meta-analyses available (12). One consequence of elevated neutrophil levels is generation of reactive oxygen species, which can induce the tissue damage typically observed in severe COVID-19 patients (13). Other markers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein, are also commonly detected in severe COVID-19 patients. In this case, tissue damage can occur wherever neutrophil infiltration and accumulation occur. Particularly, the vascular endothelium is one of the critically affected tissues (14). Specifically, the endotheliitis observed in severe COVID-19 patients could be a prime cause in multi-organ impaired microcirculatory function, including vascular leakage followed by an increase in thrombus formation. In general, endothelial cells are activated in systemic inflammation, and exaggerated activation can lead to multi-organ failure, as occurs in sepsis(14).
Dysregulation of another component of the immune system, involving complement and coagulation, also appears to contribute to the late COVID-19 pathology. It should be noted that endothelial cells are intimately involved in regulating complement and coagulation activities. In a large retrospective observational study, a history of coagulation and complement disorders (e.g., thrombocytopenia and macular degeneration) and the presence of variants of genes associated with coagulation and complement pathways are significant morbidity and mortality risk factors to COVID-19 patients. In fact, infection with SARS-CoV-2 seems to lead to activation of these pathways.
Neutrophils also produce extracellular traps comprised of plugs of DNA with adherent toxic compounds, such as myeloperoxidase. In alveoli, this can lead to the impairer of lung function. Clinical trials are planned for intratracheal administration of aerosolized recombinant human DNAse to dissolve the DNA plugs(15), similar to what is done to treat cystic fibrosis.
Taken as a whole, the available data suggest that a cytokine storm, in the sense of overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a dysregulated and overactive immune inflammatory response, is the major contributor to the pathophysiology of the late stage of COVID-19. This may be amenable to the treatment of COVID-19 with immune modulators.
- Ragab D, Salah Eldin H, Taeimah M, Khattab R, Salem R. The COVID-19 Cytokine Storm; What We Know So Far. Front Immunol. 2020 Jun 16;11:1446. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01446. PMID: 32612617; PMCID: PMC7308649.
- P. Sinha, M. A. Matthay, C. S. Calfee, Is a “Cytokine Storm” Relevant to COVID-19? JAMA Intern Med, (2020).
- G. Chen et al., Clinical and immunological features of severe and moderate coronavirus disease 2019. J Clin Invest 130, 2620-2629 (2020).
- N. Chen et al., Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet, (2020).
- R. H. Manjili, M. Zarei, M. Habibi, M. H. Manjili, COVID-19 as an Acute Inflammatory Disease. J Immunol 205, 12-19 (2020).
- D. McGonagle, K. Sharif, A. O’Regan, C. Bridgewood, The Role of Cytokines including Interleukin-6 in COVID-19 induced Pneumonia and Macrophage Activation Syndrome-Like Disease. Autoimmun Rev 19, 102537 (2020).
- P. Sinha et al., Early administration of Interleukin-6 inhibitors for patients with severe Covid-19 disease is associated with decreased intubation, reduced mortality, and increased discharge. Int J Infect Dis, (2020).
- X. Xu et al., Effective treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with tocilizumab. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 117, 10970-10975 (2020).
- M. Scarsi et al., Association between treatment with colchicine and improved survival in a single-centre cohort of adult hospitalised patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis, (2020).
- C. K. Wong et al., Plasma inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in severe acute respiratory syndrome. Clin Exp Immunol 136, 95-103 (2004).
- Y. Zhao et al., Detection and analysis of clinical features of patients with different COVID-19 types. J Med Virol, (2020).
- H. Akbari et al., The role of cytokine profile and lymphocyte subsets in the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis. Life Sci, 118167 (2020).
- M. Laforge et al., Tissue damage from neutrophil-induced oxidative stress in COVID-19. Nat Rev Immunol, (2020).
- S. Pons, S. Fodil, E. Azoulay, L. Zafrani, The vascular endothelium: the cornerstone of organ dysfunction in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Crit Care 24, 353 (2020).
- J. P. Desilles et al., Efficacy and safety of aerosolized intra-tracheal dornase alfa administration in patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 21, 548 (2020).