Vaccination can be the most efficient and effective measures in controlling the pandemics and save millions of lives. There are currently more than 60 COVID-19 vaccine candidates in clinical development and over 170 in pre-clinical development. The GVN is providing valuable information and resources for COVID-19 vaccines.
Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-2 for Vaccine Development
- Spike (S) protein plays the most important roles in viral attachment, fusion, and entry.
- Receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein binds to human ACE2 receptor.
- RBD is a target for induction of neutralizing antibodies.
- For current COVID-19 vaccine development, the spike protein is expressed by using various platforms to induce immune responses.
Available COVID-19 Vaccines
|Company||Type of Vaccine||In Use|
|Pfizer-BioNTech||mRNA Based||EU, Argentina, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Canada, Bahrain, US, UK|
|Moderna||mRNA Based||Canada, Israel, Switzerland, EU, US, UK|
|Oxford-AstraZeneca||Adenovirus vectored||Algeria, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brazil, Chile, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, EU, Iceland, India, Iraq, Kuwait, Maldives, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, South Africa, South Korea, Thailand, UK|
|Johnson and Johnson||Adenovirus vectored||South Africa, US, UK, EU, Canada|
|Gamaleya (Sputnik V)||Two different adenoviruses||Algeria, Argentina, Bolivia, Hungary, Palestine, Paraguay, Serbia, Turkmenistan, UAE, and Venezuela, Belarus, Russia.|
|CanSino Biologics (Petrovax)||Adenovirus vectored||China’s Central Military Commission (military use)|
|Sinopharm||Inactivated||Bahrain, China, Pakistan, UAE|
|Sinovac||Inactivated||Brazil, China, Indonesia|
|Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems||Inactivated||Kazakhstan|
|Type of Vaccine||How It Works|
|Messenger RNA based vaccines||Directly deliver the genetic information to the cell for expressing the spike protein into the body. The expressed viral protein will induce immune responses.|
|Viral vectored vaccines||Deliver and express the spike protein using other viruses (vector). These viral vectors are safe to be used as a vaccine (example: adenovirus).|
|Nanoparticle based vaccines||Direct injection of the spike protein assembled into nanoparticles. The protein will be presented to the immune cells to induce the immune responses|
|DNA based vaccines||Deliver a plasmid encoding the spike protein into the cells. The protein will be presented to the immune cells to induce the immune responses|
|Inactivated vaccines||Classic vaccine approach. Use of killed virus particles containing the spike protein but also all other viral proteins|
|Live-attenuated vaccines||Use of a living but weakened version of a virus (example: measles virus). Mimic a natural infection|
Sources for Vaccine Safety and Other Information
- CDC Guidelines: When You’ve Been Fully Vaccinated
- WHO Vaccines and immunization: Vaccine safety
- CDC Vaccines & Immunizations
- CDC Myths and Facts about COVID-19 Vaccines
- NIH Vaccines
- European Medicine Agency COVID-19 Vaccines
- Tracking COVID-19 vaccine distribution and administration activities:
Center for Disease Control and Prevention, USA
Johns Hopkins University