Vaccine Overview

Vaccination can be the most efficient and effective measures in controlling the pandemics and save millions of lives. There are currently more than 60 COVID-19 vaccine candidates in clinical development and over 170 in pre-clinical development. The GVN is providing valuable information and resources for COVID-19 vaccines.

Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-2 for Vaccine Development

  • Spike (S) protein plays the most important roles in viral attachment, fusion, and entry.
  • Receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein binds to human ACE2 receptor.
  • RBD is a target for induction of neutralizing antibodies.
  • For current COVID-19 vaccine development, the spike protein is expressed by using various platforms to induce immune responses.

Available COVID-19 Vaccines

Company Type of Vaccine In Use
Pfizer-BioNTechmRNA BasedEU, Argentina, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Canada, Bahrain, US, UK
ModernamRNA BasedCanada, Israel, Switzerland, EU, US, UK
Oxford-AstraZenecaAdenovirus vectoredAlgeria, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brazil, Chile, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, EU, Iceland, India, Iraq, Kuwait, Maldives, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, South Africa, South Korea, Thailand, UK
Johnson and JohnsonAdenovirus vectoredSouth Africa, US, UK, EU, Canada
Gamaleya (Sputnik V)Two different adenovirusesAlgeria, Argentina, Bolivia, Hungary, Palestine, Paraguay, Serbia, Turkmenistan, UAE, and Venezuela, Belarus, Russia.
CanSino Biologics (Petrovax)Adenovirus vectoredChina’s Central Military Commission (military use)
SinopharmInactivatedBahrain, China, Pakistan, UAE
SinovacInactivatedBrazil, China, Indonesia
Research Institute for Biological Safety ProblemsInactivatedKazakhstan
Bharat BiotechInactivatedIndia

COVID-19 Vaccine Strategies

Type of Vaccine How It Works
Messenger RNA based vaccinesDirectly deliver the genetic information to the cell for expressing the spike protein into the body. The expressed viral protein will induce immune responses.
Viral vectored vaccinesDeliver and express the spike protein using other viruses (vector). These viral vectors are safe to be used as a vaccine (example: adenovirus).
Nanoparticle based vaccinesDirect injection of the spike protein assembled into nanoparticles. The protein will be presented to the immune cells to induce the immune responses
DNA based vaccinesDeliver a plasmid encoding the spike protein into the cells. The protein will be presented to the immune cells to induce the immune responses
Inactivated vaccinesClassic vaccine approach. Use of killed virus particles containing the spike protein but also all other viral proteins
Live-attenuated vaccinesUse of a living but weakened version of a virus (example: measles virus). Mimic a natural infection