Vaccine and Post-Infection Immunity

Immunity against SARS-CoV2 is acquired in two ways, infection and vaccination. How do they differ? Which is “better”? In comparisons, consideration must be given to rates of infection, transmission, hospitalization, death, and long Covid as well as innate, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The only correlate of protection that is currently considered robust is the…

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Covid Alteration of the Gut Microbiome: A Factor in Long Covid?

October 6, 2022 In a previous Perspective we considered the relationship between Covid pathology and the gut microbiome. Since then, new studies have shed additional light on the topic. We will consider these new findings, including whether dysregulation of the microbiome might be related to long Covid. INTRODUCTION As we pointed out previously, there is…

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IS INFECTION OF ASTROCYTES A CAUSATIVE FACTOR IN COVID BRAIN FOG? 

September 12, 2022  INTRODUCTION  One of the prominent symptoms of Covid, especially long Covid, is called “brain fog”, which includes deficits in attention and concentration, memory, and executive function. This raises the question of the cause. One possibility is that it is only an indirect effect from dysregulated immune activity and/or inflammation. A second possibility is that it is due to direct infection of cell populations within the…

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FURTHER THOUGHTS ON VIRAL PERSISTENCE

August 2, 2022  INTRODUCTION  Our previous Perspectives focused on the question of whether persistent cryptic expression of virus might be contributory to long Covid. To further consider this question, it may be useful to look at examples of persistence by other viruses. DNA VIRUSES The clearest and most easily understood examples of persistence are found…

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COULD VIRAL PERSISTENCE EXPLAIN LONG COVID? 

Author: Dr. ReitzJune 30, 2022  INTRODUCTION  One serious aspect of Covid is what has been called ‘long Covid”, in which various symptoms can persist for as long as a year or more. These can include fatigue, brain fog, loss of taste and/or smell, and cardiovascular problems. There are two schools of thought on the cause, although…

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GLOBAL OUTBREAKS OF MONKEYPOX

May 25, 2022  INTRODUCTION  WHO and other health organizations are alarmed at the recent global outbreak of monkeypox. As of May 21, 2022, more than 80 cases of monkeypox have been confirmed in at least 12 countries outside of Africa (1). The first case of the disease in the UK was reported on May 7,…

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IMPACT OF THE OMICRON VARIANTS ON THE ONGOING PANDEMIC

May 10, 2022 INTRODUCTION  The emergence of the Omicron variant in November 2021 has led to a rapid surge of COVID-19 cases worldwide. Since then, Omicron has kept evolving into several different sublineages. Furthermore, recombinant Omicron variants have been detected in patients by coinfection with the two such sublineages, as well as with the delta…

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IMPACT OF INTERFERON ON DISEASE SEVERITY OF COVID-19

March 28, 2022 INTRODUCTION  Types 1 and 3 interferon (IFN) expression and activity have been shown to play a significant role in determining the disease severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is becoming clear that the timing of IFN expression is critical in the efficacy of the early response to viral infection on reducing disease severity.…

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IS BRADYKININ INVOLVED IN COVID-19 PATHOGENESIS?

March 18, 2022 INFLAMMATION  One of the hallmarks of Covid-19 disease is inflammation, mediated in part by overproduction of inflammatory cytokines. However, the mechanisms of such inflammatory process have not been clearly understood. In the past year the potential role of bradykinin, a small peptide and a members of family kinins, in the pathogenesis of…

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