Long Covid and the Vascular Endothelium
Infection with SARS-CoV2 infection often involves the vascular endothelium, resulting in a variety of deleterious effects. Among these is endothelial dysfunction, distinct from endothelial injury, in which the vascular endothelium loses elasticity and the ability to vasodilate and vasoconstrict. It constitutes a type of non-obstructive coronary artery disease and is generally associated with impaired production…Read More
Why Are Omicron Variants Less Lethal?
Omicron-derived SARS-CoV2 variants (exemplified most recently by XBB1.5(1)) are highly adept at evading immunity against vaccines and infection with previous variants and many parts of the world are currently experiencing high infection rates, yet deaths and hospitalizations have not proportionally increased. Why is this? Could previous waves have already killed those most vulnerable? Has increased…Read More
Vaccine and Post-Infection Immunity
Immunity against SARS-CoV2 is acquired in two ways, infection and vaccination. How do they differ? Which is “better”? In comparisons, consideration must be given to rates of infection, transmission, hospitalization, death, and long Covid as well as innate, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The only correlate of protection that is currently considered robust is the…Read More
Covid Alteration of the Gut Microbiome: A Factor in Long Covid?
October 6, 2022 In a previous Perspective we considered the relationship between Covid pathology and the gut microbiome. Since then, new studies have shed additional light on the topic. We will consider these new findings, including whether dysregulation of the microbiome might be related to long Covid. INTRODUCTION As we pointed out previously, there is…Read More
IS INFECTION OF ASTROCYTES A CAUSATIVE FACTOR IN COVID BRAIN FOG?
September 12, 2022 INTRODUCTION One of the prominent symptoms of Covid, especially long Covid, is called “brain fog”, which includes deficits in attention and concentration, memory, and executive function. This raises the question of the cause. One possibility is that it is only an indirect effect from dysregulated immune activity and/or inflammation. A second possibility is that it is due to direct infection of cell populations within the…Read More
FURTHER THOUGHTS ON VIRAL PERSISTENCE
August 2, 2022 INTRODUCTION Our previous Perspectives focused on the question of whether persistent cryptic expression of virus might be contributory to long Covid. To further consider this question, it may be useful to look at examples of persistence by other viruses. DNA VIRUSES The clearest and most easily understood examples of persistence are found…Read More
COULD VIRAL PERSISTENCE EXPLAIN LONG COVID?
Author: Dr. ReitzJune 30, 2022 INTRODUCTION One serious aspect of Covid is what has been called ‘long Covid”, in which various symptoms can persist for as long as a year or more. These can include fatigue, brain fog, loss of taste and/or smell, and cardiovascular problems. There are two schools of thought on the cause, although…Read More
GLOBAL OUTBREAKS OF MONKEYPOX
May 25, 2022 INTRODUCTION WHO and other health organizations are alarmed at the recent global outbreak of monkeypox. As of May 21, 2022, more than 80 cases of monkeypox have been confirmed in at least 12 countries outside of Africa (1). The first case of the disease in the UK was reported on May 7,…Read More
IMPACT OF THE OMICRON VARIANTS ON THE ONGOING PANDEMIC
May 10, 2022 INTRODUCTION The emergence of the Omicron variant in November 2021 has led to a rapid surge of COVID-19 cases worldwide. Since then, Omicron has kept evolving into several different sublineages. Furthermore, recombinant Omicron variants have been detected in patients by coinfection with the two such sublineages, as well as with the delta…Read More
SPECIALIZED PRO-RESOLVING MEDIATORS (SPMS) AS POTENTIAL COVID-19 THERAPEUTIC
April 21, 2022 INTRODUCTION Our last Perspective described how the timing of the type 1 interferon (IFN) response is a critical early point in determining whether infection with SARS-CoV2 will lead to severe disease or not. IFN activity later in infection, when disease has already developed, is apparently ineffective, and is instead detrimental. Indeed, an…Read More