Resurgent Outbreaks of Measles

Resurgent Outbreaks of Measles May 18, 2022 Introduction  Two years of the COVID-19 pandemic has brought another health crisis to children. The number of measles cases reported worldwide (more than 17,300 cases) has increased by 79 percent in the first two months of 2022 compared to the same time last year (1). Countries with the…

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Impact of the Omicron variants on the Ongoing Pandemic

Impact of the Omicron variants on the Ongoing Pandemic May 10, 2022 Introduction  The emergence of the Omicron variant in November 2021 has led to a rapid surge of COVID-19 cases worldwide. Since then, Omicron has kept evolving into several different sublineages. Furthermore, recombinant Omicron variants have been detected in patients by coinfection with the…

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Global Expansion of Acute Hepatitis Outbreaks in Healthy Children

Global Expansion of Acute Hepatitis Outbreaks in Healthy Children May 5, 2022 Introduction  A recent rise in acute hepatitis among children is expanding globally. The UK first reported an unexpected, significant increase in cases of severe acute hepatitis of unknown origin in previously healthy children. According to the WHO (1), as of 21 April 2022,…

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Specialized Pro-Resolving Mediators (SPMs) as Potential Covid-19 Therapeutic

April 21, 2022 Introduction  Our last Perspective described how the timing of the type 1 interferon (IFN) response is a critical early point in determining whether infection with SARS-CoV2 will lead to severe disease or not. IFN activity later in infection, when disease has already developed, is apparently ineffective, and is instead detrimental. Indeed, an…

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Japanese Encephalitis Virus: Ongoing Public Health Threat

April 7, 2022 Introduction  Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis. JEV is a flavivirus (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) and shares a close genetic and antigenic relationship with West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, and Murray Valley encephalitis virus (1). Most people infected with JE do not have symptoms or…

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Impact of Interferon on Disease Severity of Covid-19

Impact of Interferon on Disease Severity of Covid-19 March 28, 2022 Introduction  Types 1 and 3 interferon (IFN) expression and activity have been shown to play a significant role in determining the disease severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is becoming clear that the timing of IFN expression is critical in the efficacy of the early…

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Strategies to Eradicate Transmission of Poliovirus and Paralytic Poliomyelitis

Strategies to Eradicate Transmission of Poliovirus and Paralytic Poliomyelitis March 23, 2022 Introduction  Polio (poliomyelitis) is a highly infectious disease that mostly affects children under 5 years of age. The causative agent, poliovirus, replicates in the gut but in some cases can invade the central nervous system and cause permanent paralysis (approximately one in 200…

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Is Bradykinin Involved in Covid-19 Pathogenesis?

Is Bradykinin Involved in Covid-19 Pathogenesis? March 18, 2022 Inflammation  One of the hallmarks of Covid-19 disease is inflammation, mediated in part by overproduction of inflammatory cytokines. However, the mechanisms of such inflammatory process have not been clearly understood. In the past year the potential role of bradykinin, a small peptide and a members of…

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Ongoing Outbreaks of Lassa Virus in Nigeria

Ongoing Outbreaks of Lassa Virus in Nigeria March 8, 2022 Context The first known confirmed Omicron (B.1.1.529) infection was from a specimen collected on November 9, 2021 in Botswana (1). The variant rapidly began to spread to South Africa and other Southern African countries. Nigeria also experienced daily surge of COVID-19 cases in December, and…

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